I like black holes. I like them a lot. They are in the top ten of my bucket list of destinations if I live for a thousand years.
Black holes in popular culture are notorious for being very dark objects. I will try enlighten the readers about their shady origins, and hope that people see them in a better light.
Stars run on hydrogen. In the extreme temperatures in their cores, hydrogen nuclei fuse explosively to form helium nuclei. The explosive energy released opposes the force of gravity of the star on itself. Thus the star continues its merry existence, until it runs out of juice, that is. When there is no more hydrogen left to fuse, the temperature at the core decreases, gravity takes over and the star contracts. The contraction again heats up the core to a level where helium fuses into carbon. This reaction is much more powerful than hydrogen fusion, and the explosive output causes the star’s shell to expand, making it a red giant.
If the star is less that 10.5 solar masses then it sheds its outer layers leaving behind a very dense white dwarf star made of oxygen and carbon. the white dwarf star is prevented from collapsing further by the electron degeneracy pressure. However, if the mass of the white dwarf is more than about 1.4 times the mass of the sun, even electron pressure cannot hold back gravity. And so the electrons fuse with protons to become neutrons, thus forming a neutron star. A neutron star achieves stability due to the quantum degeneracy pressure (that particles simply cannot have the same state and so must remain separate).
However, if the mass of the neutron star exceeds 1.5 to 3 solar masses, it collapses again into one of several exotic remnants, one of which is the black hole.