Planning for the Future

I was stumbling around the internet when I came across this series of pictures. If any one of you is interested in long term investments, high return savings, that sort of thing, this is a really good view of what the coming years will bring.

future

Investment Outlook for the really meticulous planners

Click here if animation doesn’t play.

But seriously, this image had a profound effect on me. A lot of people consider themselves lucky to be living in this age of innovation, on the pinnacle of existence. And believe me, I am not ungrateful. There is Naruto and Xbox and the Grand Unified Theory, and trips to the moon and probes to Mars; there is the internet, the standard bearer of the freedom of expression, and there is Game of Thrones and Harry Potter. And most important of all there is the asymptotic ideal of liberalism that, ever so faithfully, supports one’s occasional venture into the more “contestable” realms of morality, hiding behind the slippery paradox of the ownership of the intangible.

I am, of course, talking about The Pirate Bay.

Circumlocution at its Finest

Circumlocution at its Finest

I get excited when I write about things I like. Anyways: profound effect, ok. What I was trying to say is this: when you look at the larger picture of the universe, the largest picture that you can ever picture yourself in, you realize how insignificant of a speck you are. Despite living in an age of exponential progress, there is infinitely more that you have not yet beheld. The universe has so much yet to unveil. At every point in time, mankind has perceived itself as teetering on the pinnacle of progress, having reached the absolute limit of evolution. Every time, we have been proven wrong. Perhaps it is instinctive for us to identify with an unstable equilibrium, cautious creatures that we are. And it is this tendency of ours that forces us to ignore the broader realities of nature: that its progress is eventual, inevitable and perpetual.

I thought this picture is profound not because it is humbling, but because it showed me how much I will miss. I can’t fast-forward this show, I can’t torrent re-runs. I can only hope to experience the living daylights out of an infinitesimal period in the Universe’s life; a period that in all probability might be one of the more mundane parts of the universal timeline.

Just something to think about in times of inflated optimism.

Destination: Black Hole

I like black holes. I like them a lot. They are in the top ten of my bucket list of destinations if I live for a thousand years.

Seems Legit

Seems Legit

Black holes in popular culture are notorious for being very dark objects. I will try enlighten the readers about their shady origins, and hope that people see them in a better light.

Stars run on hydrogen. In the extreme temperatures in their cores, hydrogen nuclei fuse explosively to form helium nuclei. The explosive energy released opposes the force of gravity of the star on itself. Thus the star continues its merry existence, until it runs out of juice, that is. When there is no more hydrogen left to fuse, the temperature at the core decreases, gravity takes over and the star contracts. The contraction again heats up the core to a level where helium fuses into carbon. This reaction is much more powerful than hydrogen fusion, and the explosive output causes the star’s shell to expand, making it a red giant.

If the star is less that 10.5 solar masses then it sheds its outer layers leaving behind a very dense white dwarf star made of oxygen and carbon. the white dwarf star is prevented from collapsing further by the electron degeneracy pressure. However, if the mass of the white dwarf is more than about 1.4 times the mass of the sun, even electron pressure cannot hold back gravity. And so the electrons fuse with protons to become neutrons, thus forming a neutron star. A neutron star achieves stability due to the quantum degeneracy pressure (that particles simply cannot have the same state and so must remain separate).

However, if the mass of the neutron star exceeds 1.5 to 3 solar masses, it collapses again into one of several exotic remnants, one of which is the black hole.

starlife

Source

Famous Astronomers and other Stuff

astronomers lives

There are 5 scientists that are recognized as major astronomical figures in Europe:

Of the 5 of these people, 3 of them were alive and active at the same time (Galelio, Kepler and Brahe).

Nicholas Copernicus, in particular contributed a lot to out understanding of the Solar system. It was he who popularized the idea of a Heliocentric model of the solar system. He gave a series of assumptions which explained things such as Sunrise, sunset, star motion, retrograde motion etc. Even though some of his assumptions are incorrect according to modern science, they were still such good approximations that all that was needed was Galileo’s little struggles to put the final nail in geocentric theory’s coffin.

During his time, the world was undergoing some serious changes. The Americas were discovered in 1492, a discovery that literally changed the face of the earth (according to humans, at least). In 1526 King Babur, the great grandson of Tamerlane defeated the Lodhi Dynasty to establish the mighty Mughal Empire in the Indian Subcontinent. His victory marked the first use of cannons in India (that was why he won, mostly). While Copernicus was busy reforming our view of the universe, William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was writing what would become one of the most recognized pieces of literature in the world. He is considered to be the greatest writer in English language and a trendsetter in literature of many other languages as well.

What I found so interesting was how differently I perceived scientific history from political history. Comparing astronomers to Columbus’s voyage makes astronomy seem really old (and the Americas really new). It was also a surprise to realize that the heliocentric model of the solar system was proposed before such a famous Empire was formed. Now the Taj Mahal seems like it was built yesterday.

To Stretch or Not To Stretch

Physics has the distinction of hosting the one of the weirdest concept hierarchies  Don’t get me wrong: physics is beautiful in its intricate connections. But sometimes, especially in the case of modern physics, one feels something like:

WTF_1

So, most of us know about special relativity. A quick summary for the unfortunate: Special relativity establishes the speed of light as constant in all inertial reference frames (that is, for all observers who are either at rest or moving at a constant velocity). One of its implications is that information (in the layman’s case:anything) cannot travel faster than light. This means that as one starts approaching the speed of light, stuff starts happening. Time slows down (according to an outside observer looking at you), your mass increases and weird lighting effects start taking place. I am concerned with length contraction: the shortening of length of objects which are moving at relativistic velocities.

After an unexpected abortion of its hiatus, my conscience prevented me from playing Ace Combat.  And so I was looking for something productive to do when I found this website. According to the article, even though relativistic speeds may cause measurable shortening of length, it most certainly is not observable. Instead the fast travelling object will actually “appear” elongated, while actually being “contracted” at the same time (Schrodinger’s cat, anyone?).  The more I progressed into the article, the more I was like:

WTF_2

But then, I went into scientist mode…

inception_meme__1_…and decided to do a little calculation of my own.

 Imagine there is an object moving towards you at a velocity ‘v’. The stationary length of the object is ‘l’. The distance between you and the farthest part of the object is ‘x’.

rel_exp_1

Just by looking at the image we can see that light from the back of the object takes longer to reach the observer. Mathematically:

t_back_eqnt_front_eqn

We also know that we see an image when photons belonging to the same “plane” reach our eyes. From the equations above, we can see that photons reflected from the front “l/c” seconds later will arrive at the same time (i.e. on the same “plane”) as photons reflected from the back. However in ‘l/c’ seconds, the object will have moved by the distance:

dist_eqn

So the image that will reach our eyes will be like:

rel_exp_2

The apparent length of the object will be:

obs_enlrg_fac_eqn

Let us now assume that the object’s velocity is actually relativistic. So the measured length of the object will shrink to:

rel_len_eqn

And it is this length that will undergo apparent distortion:

final_stretch_eqn

Where l(measured) is the stationary length of the object. The relativistic factor shrinks whereas the observational factor stretches the object. It all comes down to which one of those functions is more powerful. This is a graph of enlargement vs. speed. ‘1’ on the y axis represents no distortion.

plot_rel_factors

Back to Ace Combat. ibrahim2016 out.